История семьи Лифшиц из Сорок-eng

Исторические факты и рассказы о жизни города в прошлом

История семьи Лифшиц из Сорок-eng

Сообщение sadmin Чт ноя 05, 2020 5:58 pm

В оригинале автора на английском языке.
История Сорок, которую автор собрал из различных источников и история их семьи, которая попала из Сорок в начале века в Аргентину.
Автор Guillermo Blugerman, Argentina
Co-director at Centros B & S
Studied Medico cirujano at UNNE
Member of Bessarabian / Moldavian Jewish Roots since October 27, 2020
Blugerman-2.png
Blugerman-2.png (351.1 КБ) Просмотров: 128

Hello, I'm looking for peoples from this Shtetl named Obodivka (Obodovka, Vinnitza, Ukraine).
Apparently part of my family Kreimer use to live there until 1894 when they come to Argentina thanks to the JCA of Baron Maurizio de Hirsch. The shtetl name we deduct because all the peoples tell about my relative as “der obedifker” Could be other small city too. What we know as they were Bessarabers as my other relatives Lifschitz and Bilkis from Soroka area.


Part One

History of the Lifschitz according to compilation so far. November 2020
Our Lifschitz were from Bessarabia, present- day Moldova Republic.
They came from village called Soroca or Soroki that remains on the Dniester River on the
border with Ukraine.
In one of the winding curves of the Dniester River, on the right bank of Bessarabia, in a very
picturesque place, is one of the oldest and most beautiful cities of the Republic of Moldova,
Soroki (now Soroca). The history of this small village located on the shore of the Dniester, is
very rich.
According to Dimitri Kantemir and historian K. Khanatski, "On the edge of Dacia's ancient
history and on the shore of the famous Tiras, where the city of Soroca is now located, was
Olkheonia, the commercial base of transhipment from Genoa. After the conquest of
Constantinople by Muhammad II, the Italian colonies were destroyed, and Olkheonia would also
have disappeared. However, a few centuries later, a new city developed on this beautiful site
."
In the 11th to the 12th century, the entire territory of Proutsk-Pridniest was an integral part of
Kievan Russia, and a little later, of the principality of Vodino-Galitskoe. Then there were the
Moldovan principalities, the occupations, especially under the Ottoman yoke...
According to Moldovan annista Miron Kostin, in the 16th-century 40s, during the occupation of
Piotr Rareshe, the wooden and earth structure of the fortifications was replaced by a stone
fortress. The Tatar orderstos, the Turkish Janissars, the Polish and Hungarian feudal armies faced
strong resistance.

The houses around the fortress were often looted and destroyed by foreign armies, the population
was in poverty (soroki means "poor", "unfortunate"). Several researchers assume that the name
of the city Soroka derives its origin from this name. According to the Bucharest Peace Treaty
(1812), Turkey ceded territory between the Prut and Dniester rivers in Russia. Thus appeared the
region of Bessarabia, and the fortress of Soroca lost its military importance.
"Soroka - a capital of the district of the province of Bessarabia. According to the revision of
1847, in this district were the following "Jewish communes": Ataki - 559 families; Rashkov -
22; Soroki - 343. According to the 1897 census in the district, there are more than 218,000
inhabitants, including 31,000 Jews; Soroca 15,351 inhabitants, including 8353 Jews.
Among the municipalities of the district with more than 500 people, Jews are, as a percentage, the largest
proportion of the entire population in the following places: Ataki - 6976 inhabitants (4690 Jews);
Brichena - 1644 (1598); Val - 4641 (3237); Vertujeni - 1057 (1047); Dombroveni - 1815 (1726);
Zguritsa - 2107 (1802); Kanpeshti - 1002 (866); Kol-Markuleshti - 1339 (1336); Kremenchuk -
985 (291); Liublin - 519 (517); Pogorno-Peresh - 540 (73); Rula - 1289 (127).
In Soroca, in 1910, there was a main synagogue, existing since 1775, a small 100-year-old
hamidrash bet and a large 95-year-old midrash. In addition, there are 16 temples, including four
of them belonging to corporations, three to the khasits. There are ancient bulls and ancient tools
of worship, but I don't know their date of belonging. The Jewish community existed long before
the construction of the first synagogue, the first tor is supposed to date back 300 years.
There are three cemeteries, and according to the ancient inhabitants, there are tombs over 400
years old. The local funeral fraternity appeared in 1777. The first note made 130 years ago is
well preserved.

There is also the hospital, the association for the help of the poor, and the loan and savings fund,
the public learning school, the women's private school (since 1861), Talmud-Torah, the public
Jewish library and the reading room. The quota of 8000 rubles is distributed as follows: in the
hospital 5000 rubles, in the learning school 1000 rubles, in the poor 1500 rubles, etc.
From 1856, when the last canyon was taken from the fortress of Soroka, it became the historical
and architectural monument, the symbol of the city of Soroka. At the same time, the city grew in
importance to become one of the commercial and industrial centers of northern Bessarabia.
Soroka became a landing bridge, from where the various goods (bovine, wheat, tobacco, wool,
wine, etc.) departed for Odessa, Podolia and Galicia.

In his "Peoples of Bessarabia", published in the newspaper "The Messenger of Odessa" (1863),
K. Khanatski describes Soroka in this way:
"The city is located in the center of the district, with vast fields, rich and populated. Hill-cut
land, which prevent large settlements, includes a predominantly Jewish population. The other
part of the city is located a little more in the height, the owners are essentially civil servants and
nobles. The third part adheres to the slopes and gorges, in the escarped, like nests along the
mountain, surrounding the city. They are the houses of the "soroki" - urban proletarians of
different trades and services. The whole city of Soroka is a huge amphitheatre, which, especially
with night lighting on the side of the Dniester River, is of amazing beauty
."
His contemporary, the governor of Bessarabia, states that from the location to Perm, throughout
Russia, there is no city more beautiful than Soroka.

The same goods were exported through Novosseletsk customs to the Romanian principalities,
Austria-Hungary, Germany and even Switzerland. The city of Soroca developed as a center of
commerce, craftsmanship, culture, public health, also contributing to the development of the
entire Soroka district, and northern Bessarabia. The Jewish population was actively involved in
this process throughout the history of the city.
Jews have been mentioned since very early in the Principality of Moldova, but they did not
represent a significant number. Their main activity in Moldova was trade, but they could not
compete with the Greeks and Armenians, who were aware of The Levantine trade and relations.
Several times, when Jewish merchants created monopolies in some parts of northern Moldova,
Moldova's rulers sent them back to Galicia and Podolia. One such example occurred during the
reign of Petru Ochiopul (1583–1591), who favored the English merchants led by William
Harborne.

In the 18th century, more Jews began to settle in Moldova. Some of them were in charge of the
Dniester crossings, replacing Moldovans and Greeks, until the captain of Soroca demanded their
expulsion. Others traded spirits (horilka), which were first brought from Ukraine, then built
local velniaas (pre-industrial distilleries). The number of Jews increased significantly during the
Russian-Turkish War (1806–1812), when the Podolia-Moldova border was open.
When this war ended, in 1812, Bessarabia (the eastern half of the Principality of Moldova) was
annexed by the Russian Empire.
In the years 1812-1858 the number of Jews in Bessarabia grew from 20,000 to about 84,696. In
45 years the Jewish population quadrupled. This large increase in the number of Jews in the
province reflects immigration for two reasons. One of them was population growth due to the
settlement that took place in the first half of the nineteenth century with the support of the
Russian authorities. The Russian regime was interested in populating the province, especially in
areas with few people like the south.
The Statutory Law of 1818 of the Bessarabia Governorate mentions Jews as a separate state
(social class), which was divided into merchants and land workers. Unlike other states, Jews
were not allowed to own agricultural land, with the exception of "empty lots only of state
property, for cultivation and for factory construction."
Jewish immigration to Bessarabia was part of the great Jewish immigration movement of the
northern districts in the first half of the 19th century. These areas were densely populated by
Jews and moved south. The southern areas were sparsely populated at the time and were
undergoing a process of accelerated colonization, independently and freely. They were also
going through great economic development. The new Russia was a developing area and there
were many economic opportunities in the state.
Jews were allowed to maintain and control the sale of spirits in government and private
residences, to have "mills, inns, breweries and similar properties", but they were explicitly
prohibited from "governing Christians", that is, having Christian employees under their
command. During the 1817 census, there were 3,826 Jewish families in Bessarabia (estimated at
19,000 people, or 4.2% of the total population).

Rural colonies
In the next generations, the Jewish population of Bessarabia grew significantly. Unlike most of
the rest of the Russian Empire, in Bessarabia, Jews were allowed to settle in fairs and cities.
Tsar Nicholas I issued a ukaz (decree) that allowed Jews to settle in Bessarabia "in a higher
number," giving Jews who decided to settle down, two years tax-free. At the same time, jews in
Podolia and Kherson governorates were given a five-year tax-free grace if they crossed the
Dniester and established themselves in Bessarabia.
As a result, commercial activity was not enough to sustain all Jews, which led the Tsarist
authorities to create 17 Jewish agricultural colonies: 10,589 Jews were settled in these villages,
forming 1,082 homes. This plan was taken from the ideas of Emperor Joseph II of Austria
regarding the Jews of Bukovina, but became impractical as the Jews preferred to leave Bukovina
rather than settle in villages. The impression that Jews would not stay in rural areas proved
wrong, as their colonization at first seemed a success. However, after several years, Jews in
these rural colonies preferred commercial activities with livestock, leather, wool, tobacco, while
their agricultural lands were rented mainly to Christian peasants. Later, many of these Jews
moved to fairs and sold their land to Moldovans. During the 1856 census, there were 78,751
Jews in Bessarabia (about 8% of the total population of 990,000). Jewish immigrants from the
north were attracted to Bessarabia not only because of the good economic conditions prevailing
in the province, but also by policies. After Bessarabia was annexed by Russia the legal situation
of the Jews of Bessarabia was defined by the Regulations for the Organization of Bessarabia of
1818. It established legal and administrative conditions and regulations for the next 10 years
(until 1828). Jews were granted basic rights, the privilege of residing anywhere in the province,
permission to work and do business everywhere. The Jews of Bessarabia were integrated into
existing administrative economic and social levels. They were now allowed to own depopulated
state land.

Late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1889 there were 180,918 Jews out of a total population of 1,628,867 in Bessarabia, or
11.11%. In the 39 years between 1858 and 1897 the number of Jews there increased by 169.8%,
or an average of 4.35% per year. By 1897 the Jewish population had grown to 225,637 out of a
total of 1,936,392, or 11.65%.
A special importance for the Jews of Bessarabia was the prohibition of residing near the border.
There were two reasons: A. the border was a strange line so two-thirds of the area was included
in the forbidden area. B. The political and territorial results of the Treaty of Paris (1856) and
the Treaty of Berlin (1878) changed borders twice.
The results of the regulation did not mean new Jewish immigration. However, the Jews
continued to arrive with the lawful agreement of the authorities. They were always in danger of
expulsion. In the second half of the 19th century, occasionally, some entire families or
communities were expelled.
The situation worsened after Russia annexed southern Bessarabia in 1878 and the question of
the right to reside in this area arose. Authorities continued to try to expel the Jews from this
area.
The legal status of some 6,000 Jews in southern Bessarabia – annexed by Romania according to
the Treaty of Paris of 1856 – was similar to that of the Jews of the rest of Romania. This meant
that for 22 years, until the annexed area was returned to Russia in 1878, Jews in this area (New
Bessarabia) were statused as foreigners who had no civil rights. As was the case with all Jews in
Romania, these new residents had no economic freedom and could not live in rural areas or real
estate there. They also could not lease land or manage taverns and inns in these areas. They
were expelled from rural areas or even from the State itself. This regulation only applied to
Jews.
Nor could they practice any profession allowed to Romanian citizens, i.e. practice law, dispense
medicines, etc. The Jews of La Nueva Bessarabia also suffered persecution from the population
and local authorities. In 1864 there was an attempt at blood defamation and in 1869 the citizens
of Bolgrod tried to expel the Jewish residents from there. In 1872 there were serious pogromisms
in Izmail, Cahul and Vlikov. They were a reaction when there was a rumor that a Jew from
Izmail, actually a convert to Russian Christianity, stole money and religious items from the local
church. When he was captured, he was convinced to implicate some Jews in the city, including
the rabbi and a community leader, saying that he had been sent to steal religious objects in order
to desecrate them. These Jews were arrested, tortured until they confessed and then sent to trial.
The behavior of the authorities caused strong reactions between Jews and non-Jews in Western
countries. Jewish organizations then participated and protests were made to the Romanian
government. One of the leaders of the protests was the American consul, a Jew named Benjamin
Franklin Peichoto. There was a demand to free those arrested and punish the pogromos leaders.
These lawsuits actually led to the release of the arrested Jews, even though they had been
convicted in court.
When the area was returned to Russia, questions arose about the legal status of the Jews. Many
Jews did not swear allegiance to Russia within 3 years as required by law. They were regarded
as foreigners and the Russian authorities began deporting them to Romania. However, the
Romanians did not think of them as citizens and returned to the deportees. This was his
destination until 1892, when the Senate decided that all residents of the area would
automatically become Russian citizens as a result of the annexation. This was the case for all
The Jews who were able to prove that they were residents before the annexation. The wave of
pogromos that flooded southern Russia in 1881-1884 also passed to Bessarabia.
Until the 1880s, the Jews of Bessarabia enjoyed the good conditions that had been created due
to rapid economic growth and the various opportunities available. They did not suffer the
difficulties that existed for Jews in the northwestern areas. There is much evidence of the stable
economic situation of the Jews of Bessarabia at the time. As had been true in the first half of the
century, so it was in the second half that the Jews of Bessarabia were better off economically and
lived in better conditions than their brothers in White Russia, Lithuania and western Ukraine. A
resident of that time even referred to Bessarabia as "Paradise" compared to other countries.
The war was concluded by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which stipulated (Article 44) that non-
Christians in Romania (including Jews and Muslims in the newly acquired region of northern
Dobruja) should receive full citizenship. After a protracted debate in the country and diplomatic
negotiations abroad, the Romanian government finally agreed (1879) to repeal article 7 of its
constitution. However, this was reformulated to make procedures very difficult: "the
naturalization of foreigners who are not under foreign protection must in each individual case be
decided by Parliament" (the action involves, inter alia, a period of ten years before an
assessment was given to the applicant). The gesture was duplicated by a show of fulfillment - 883
Jews, participants in the war, were naturalized in one body by a vote from both chambers.
Fifty-seven people voted as individuals were naturalized in 1880; 6, in 1881; 2, in 1882; 2, in
1883; 18, from 1886 to 1900; in total, 85 Jews in twenty-one years, 27 of whom died in the
meantime; c. 4,000 people had obtained citizenship in 1912. Several laws were passed until the
search for virtually every race became dependent on the possession of political rights, which
only Romanians could exercise; more than 40% of Jewish workers, including manual workers,
were forced to be unemployed do by such legislation. Similar laws were passed with respect to
Jews preceding liberal professions.
In 1903, the Russian Bessarabia had a Jewish population of 50,000, or 46%, out of a total of
approximately 110,000. Jewish life flourished with 16 Jewish schools and more than 2,000
pupils in Chisinou alone.

BESSARABIA (Adapted to the history of our Lifschitz family from Daniel Muchnik's book
Immigrants)
"Bessarabia was left behind, in a surely oprobous past, and Solomon and his wife Clara Belkis
and sons, his nephew Gregory, Anne, his father's second wife with his sons and daughters almost
erased her from his memoirs. Today the Stetl in Soroca, from where the Lifschitz left, is part of
the independent Republic of Moldova, a territory that in the past was permanently in dispute
between Romania and Russia.
Before that, the tsar snatched Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire. In the twentieth century, the
communist Soviet Union lost Bessarabia, then recovered it with the Molotov-Ribbentropp treaty
in 1939 and lost it again after the Nazi invasion of Operation Barbarossa in 1941. He regained it
only at the end of World War II. When our ancestors lived there, Bessarabia, a member of the
"Residence Zone", the European strip where Jews were allowed to live, was a mosaic of
languages and human groups.
The Jews lived with Russians, Romanians, Gypsies, Turks, Ukrainians, Tatars. Ukrainians who
escaped the punishment of long military service found opportunities in Bessarabia. Bessarabia,
with gentle hills, crops and vineyards, did not escape the turbulent history of Europe. Says Dr.
and Psychiatrist José Itzigsohnl that the popular saying was that "in Bessarabia the fires went
out with wine".
The Jews of the region gained a reputation as cheerful and unread people, in the face of the
intellectual and asctic stereotype of the Baltic Jews. The cultural life of the Jews of Bessarabia
revolves around what was the center of the entire south-western Russian Empire, the city of
Odessa in Ukraine. The trades were diverse. There were merchants, farmers and those engaged
in the purchase and sale of livestock. From the 3rd to the 11th century the region was invaded by
Goths, Huns, Bavarians, Slavs, Bulgarians and Magiars, and by the Mongols and Tatars who
stormed at four times between 1241 and 1343. In 1484 the Turks took possession, but the
Russians displaced them throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries. In the same period
German settlers later known as Volga Germans attracted by advantages and promises of Tsar
Catherine the Great settled in Romania.
The Turks dominated Bessarabia until 1812, when they abandoned her when they were defeated
by the Russians. According to testimonies of the time, they treated the Jews with consideration.
That is why many moved without hesitation to regions where the Ottoman Empire continued to
dominate. The empty space left by some was occupied by Jews from Ukraine.
Already in the first decades of the nineteenth century health, in general, advanced markedly.
Doctors and nurses learned to hygienize thoroughly before caring for patients. The population
grew, infant mortality declined, hygiene improved, the variolic vaccine was applied, bubonic
plague was left in the past, although cholera remained.
In the second half of the nineteenth century Bessarabia will often be ravaged by pogromos. At
the beginning of the twentieth century the city of Kishinev, now the capital of Moldova, was a
distribution center for anti-Semitic literature and fierce harassment and persecution of Jews.
During World War II, Romanians and Germans annihilated the remaining Jews, jews and
Russian "collaborators." The Jewish population, about 200,000 people in 1941, was initially
sent to ghettos and then to death camps. Will the Lifschitz of our family always have lived, for
ever and ever, in Bessarabia? I lack precise elements or evidence to investigate. But historians
claim that Jews lived for several generations in the same place, except for exceptions. News of
economic opportunities for Jews, if they settled in Bessarabia, also reached the Jewish
population of Lithuania, White Russia and Ukraine so they may have come from other lands.
These countries were in serious economic difficulties. Some of the rumors were exaggerated. An
example is the history of wealth that awaits anyone who reaches the south. Rumors aroused a
strong desire among Western Jews to emigrate. A parade of Jews reached the south, mainly from
Lithuania and White Russia and encompassed thousands of people. Were they always based in
that area or did they come from Poland, or from Ukraine or the Baltic Countries? It's a question
I still can't find answers to.

There is no data that the Lifschitz have been outrageous religious, although they are respectful
of all Jewish life. Were they scholars? There's no indication. The Lifschitz in our family had no
excessive Slavic traits. They were Brunettes, with a certain resemblance to Balkan men, almost
Turkish. Other Lifschitzs from other countries were more similar to the people of Central
Europe, Romanians or Hungarians. What were their names before they were called Lifschitz,
when Napoleon Bonaparte imposed the use of surnames? The Lifschitz of Bessarabia spoke,
almost without hesitation, the Yiddish and Russian, and chatted Romanian and Ukrainian to
understand each other in trade and in the limited social dialogues. Only educated Jews, urban
and traveled, could approach other, more universal languages. Whoever knew French was
privileged because he had been allowed to attend high school. How lucky have you been in the
preceding centuries? I cannot imagine that they have integrated the Hasidic movement in the
eighteenth century, which was born and raised in southern Ukraine, near Moldova, because
there were no indications of this either in Bessarabia or when they arrived in Entre Ríos. At that
time there are beginning to be Jews who run taverns and make wines and spirits, tasks protected
by the landowners. A population census conducted in the seventh decade of the eighteenth
century confirmed that in the Region of Ukraine, next to Bessarabia, a quarter of Jews engaged
in leases and taverns in villages or rural areas, another quarter worked in different trades and
crafts, the third quarter lacked fixed monetary income, and the rest were divided among
merchants, professionals and passenger or freight carriers. With the very long Russian presence,
the Jews endured years of hostility and prejudice. They were hypocritically accused of peasant
misery. And worst of all, Tsars Alexander I and Nicholas forced the Jews, by a decree of 1827, to
do military service (in the midst of a territorial expansion by blood and fire), for at least five
years and at most for twenty-five, on the pretext that it was the way to "rusify" them and to
forsothe them from their origins.
Only the only children of widowed mothers or wealthy Jews who paid kidnappers were saved to
get someone to replace their children against their will. In the nineteenth century there was a
significant increase in the European population, while the spread of different epidemics
decreased. But the Jews continued to suffer from serious health difficulties. For many
connoisseurs, product of inbreeding. Infant mortality among them reached 25 percent, most
children died from meningitis.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, when the Lifschitz chose to escape to America, the
Jews remained undesirable and condemned by the Orthodox Church. In that span, a racial and
not just religious anti-Semitism emerged. How can we not flee from such unpredictability and
helplessness, from the new pogrom prepared in ministries, in police offices or in Cossach
cavalry?
He must have had a lot of courage Solomon, or a lot of fear for him and his own, to move with
about 40 years of age (a boldness stead of an adventure, in the early twentieth century), and take
his family to an ignominious country, with customs and climates diametrically opposed to those
of Besssia. Leave brothers and family there. Leave their dead buried in the local cemetery. He
must have had nightmares, he must have thought about it a lot of times. That's what I imagine. I
put myself in his place. And he must have gone through moments of doubt when he wouldn't
know what to do, if he stayed where he was, if he started walking, getting on the train to
Romania and from there to Hamburg, if he got on that boat and sailed to what seemed like the
end of earthly existence. He must have overcome many doubts, those that are painful and leave
scars that are not erased."
Luckily for us they made the right decision and left us the legacy of being born in a country with
more freedom and less persecution.
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Simja (Simon) Lifschitz who is the oldest ancestor we know to this day. We could infer from the
names of the grandchildren that his father may have called himself Gregory because he is called
ase repeat between two of his grandchildren among his descendants. Another name that is
repeated is Daniel and Leopold. He married Fania Groisman and had three sons Solomon,
Bernardo and Peretz. He then widowed and remarried Ana Dizik who was divorced because she
had been forced to marry a man she did not love and had a daughter named Maike from the first
marriage and whose surname we do not yet know. Simja (Simon) Lifschitz also had with Ana
Dizik three sons named Moses, John and Simon (rare because they usually do not name living
people among the Jews unless she was the youngest of all and was born after the father's death
while the mother was pregnant) but also had two female daughters Dora and Fanny (possibly in
homage to Simja's first and late wife).
Ana Dizik
Maria
Hija
The situation in Russia was rooted and Kishinev the capital of Bessarabia was the scene of a
large Pogrom in 1903 and Odessa of another in 1905.
Kishinev, pogrom February 16, 1903:.
In 1903, a Christian Ukrainian boy, Mikhail Ribalenko, was found murdered in the romanian
town of Dubossary, about 25 miles northeast of Kishinev; the city is located on the left bank of
the Dniester River and was formally not part of Bessarabia. Although it was clear that the child
had been killed by a relative (who was later found), the government called him "a plot of ritual
murder by the Jews." Pavel Krushevan, the editor of the Russian-language anti-Semitic
newspaper Bessarabian and Deputy Governor Ustrugov incited mobs. The newspaper regularly
accused the Jewish community of numerous crimes, and on multiple occasions published
headlines such as "Death to Jews! and "Crusade against the hated race!" They used the ancient
slander against the Jews (that the child had been killed to use his blood in the preparation of
matzot).
Viacheslav Plehve, the interior minister, allegedly gave orders not to stop the protesters. So the
pogrom lasted three days, without the intervention of the police. Forty-seven Jews (some say 49)
were killed, 92 seriously injured, 500 injured light and more than 700 houses destroyed. Despite
a worldwide protest, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and 22 were sentenced
to one or two years. This pogrom is considered the first state-inspired action against Jews in the
20th century and was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to go to the
West and Palestine. Many of the younger Jews, including Mendel Portugali, made an effort to
defend the community.
There was a second episode in 1905 that left several hundred dead so Solomon, who was the
older brother, would have decided to come to Argentina to see the possibilities for the rest of the
family to emigrate here." Simon remained in Soroka until his death in 1920 with his second wife
Anne and their children, and other family members who corresponded for years as a certain
Yosiph and Motel and Feiga couple.
Solomon and his sons worked in the vineyards of Soroka and told me that on many occasions
they fed on the grapes they collected in the vines because there was not much more to eat.
On the front line he sends good wishes. Then he says, my dear cousin Israel and my dear cousin
Lola with their beautiful children from their cousin who loves them Yosef Lifschitz
My cousin Yisrael Lifschitz and his dear wife from his cousins Motol ______ and Faiga?
Paula? Lifschitz Soroka 1925
According to the data found in the SEMLA archives, Solomon and family arrives in Argentina
on July 11, 1908.
The ship they arrived on departed Hamburg port so they had to travel several days from their
original Soroka to the North Sea coast. That journey will have been made mostly by train
through Hungary, Austria and Germany. They brought Romanian passports so possibly from
Soroka they went to Kishinev. We do not know if at that time there would be train from Kishinev
to the capital of the Kingdom of Romania, Bucharest.
From Bucharest they have most likely taken a train through Budapest, Vienna and finally
arriving in Hamburg.

De Soroka a Bucharest en auto ho sedemora 8 horas.
From Bucharest they have most likely taken a train through Budapest, Vienna and finally
arriving in Hamburg.
En tren desde Bucharest a Hamburgo se demoran mas de 30 horas
The ship belonged to the company HAMBURG-AMERIKANISCHE PACKETFAHRT

AKTIEN GESELLSCHAFT, or 'Hapag' (according to its initials) but better known in the
English-speaking world as HAMBURG AMERICAN LINE, was founded on May 27, 1847. He
began operations with wooden sailboats, and his first steamer departed Hamburg for New York
on 1 June 1856.

Puerto de Hamburgo 1908

The ship was called K-NIG FRIEDRICH AUGUST (King Frederick Augustus) and was a large
and luxurious 9,462-tonne two-propeller vessel that was launched on 4 July 1906.
He began his maiden voyage from Hamburg to Buenos Aires on October 26, 1906.
It was a product of Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, equipped with two sets of quad expansion
engines giving a service speed of 15 knots and had capacity for 296 first class passengers, 56
second class and 696 third class.
In 1919 he surrendered to Britain during World War I. In 1920 he moved to the Canadian
Pacific, being renamed Montreal the following year. In 1927 he went to the mooring in
Southend. In 1928 he moved to the Fabre Company under the name alesia. In 1932 it was
scrapped.
HAMBURG-AMERIKANISCHE PACKETFAHRT AKTIEN
GESELLSCHAFT (HAPAG)
(Hamburg-Amerika Linie – Hamburg American Line)
1900-34 (Alemana)
KONIG FRIEDRICH AUGUS
Desembarcaron en el puerto de Buenos Aires donde los registraron bajo estos nombres.
From Buenos Aires after sorry for a few days at the Hotel de Inmigrants, they possibly moved by
boat to Concepción del Uruguay with one of the Mihanovich company's ships. From there in ten
to Basavilbaso to transfer to Dominguez Station.
We don't know why they chose to settle in Villa Domínguez in Entre Ríos. They may have had
family or acquaintances there because there was a large immigration of kissers to that area.

• LIPSCHITZ LISACHUSE 48 C RUSA AGRICULTOR
• LIPSCHITZ CHAJE 43 C RUSA SIN PROFESION
• LIPSCHITZ ITZIG 17 S RUSA AGRICULTOR
• LIPSCHITZ DANIEL 16 S RUSA AGRICULTOR
• LIPSCHITZ ISRAEL 11 S RUSA SIN PROFESION
• LIPSCHITZ CHANE 9 S RUSA
• LIPSCHITZ FRANZ 5 S RUSA
• LIPSCHITZ GEISON 2 S RUSA
• LIPSCHITZ I 1 S RUSA

11/07/1908 KONIG FRIEDRICH AUGUS HAMBURGO
Villa Domínguez is a municipality located in the Bergara district of Villaguay department, Entre
Ríos Province, Argentina. The municipality comprises the town of the same name and a rural
area. It was founded on September 23, 1890, when the Gobernador Dominguez railway station
was enabled.
Villa Domínguez was born as one of the country establishments, owned by the Anonymous
Society 'La Agricultura'. These lands are fertile and suitable for agriculture, but climate problems
caused serious disruption near the stream, in the Bergara district That is why the Gdor is
requested. of the Province a solution and on September 23, 1890 the Railway Station was
enabled by inaugurating the Gualeguaychú - Basavilvaso - Villaguay railway line that produces
economic changes, allows the arrival of immigrants and the formation of villages in the area. The
station is located in the very center of Colonia Clara..
Parallel to the tracks and in the northwestern sector of the train route, is the station itself together
with service facilities and warehouses..
There they went down with their trunks full of banners, clothes and hopes of progress in this new
land.
The station of the utilitarian architecture of the English of the late nineteenth century, is austere,
with few ornaments but solid. It has a common masonry wraparound fuerterevocate to lime and
painted white and beige. It hasa dark brown perimetral base, a tall body withwooden outsellings
on its sides and entrance doors of the same material on the tracks. At the top stand out the
triangular sides that support the important inclination of the roof with portholes on each side
finishing together with cornice and details in the load
This volume of high height to twocoveredwaters and on the tracks-aspace is moreopen to a water
are of French fabrics and highlightsthe wooden head and the columns of fluxof the arrival
sector.. The level of the calcareous floor of the same is raised to the tracks but uneven towards
the main volume.
The interior is divided into three sectors, the sector of the middle for the hall and the sides for
administration In the hall stands out a cornice perimetral and ceiling in wood and the old
furniture. The apartment is calcareous with unique designs. Currently it operates a night school
for adults as the railway activity for passengers has practically disappeared In the back has been
added a house that does not match the main language and typology.
From its beginnings it was the main urban center of Colonia Clara, the main Jewish colony in
Entre Ríos, also hosting one of the most important agricultural cooperatives in the country,
"Comunal Fund Limited Agricultural Cooperative Society".
A bank, linen oil factory, grain elevators, library and the first Israelite hospital in South America
were also created.
Villa Domínguez is a small and quiet village that preserves its original trace, in which the streets,
arranged diagonally, start from a round square surrounded by the street "Dr. Yarcho", so named
in memory of the first doctor who arrived in this town in 1892.

Polo at the front of the family home where the Israel General Bouquet Warehouse was located.
Solomon (9/1/1865) at (26/3/1938) was married to Clara Bilkis (daughter of Isaac Bilkis and
Tuba Jajan) also besaraber of Soroki and they already had all their children. Daniel (1889), Isaac
(1891), Sara, Israel (1896), Gregory, Anne (1903) and Mary (22/8/1908) newborn but annotated
as Argentine in 1912 although in her Identity Cedula she appears as Romanian.


Maria, Clara Bilkis y Sara
Clara, Ofelia Blugerman, Ruth Blugerman y María Lifschitz
Abraham Blugerman Clara Bilkis y Leopoldo Blugerman

Daniel Lifschitz was born in 1889 (according to the arrival register he would have been born in
1892 because he was 16 years old, but often the age was forged to avoid being called to the
Military Service), was married Ana Deli
Ana Deli y Daniel Lifschitz
Her first daughter was named Fania (1917) after her mother, Fania Groisman. Fania was known
as Babe Sverdloff for marrying Rafael Sverdloff and living in Santa Fe. Hugo, a pediatric
physician living in Buenos Aires and Ana Clelia who lives in Entre Ríos, were born from this
marriage.
Ana Deli, Felisa Deli y Fanny (Nena) Lifschitz 12 de diciembre de 1929
Felisa Deli y Fanny Lifschitz
Daniel, Ana con Fania y Silvia
Daniel Lifschitz con …
David (Chiquito) Lifschitz with Pearl Nudelman, Daniel, Fania, Hugo Sverdloff and Rafael
Sverdloff
Then they had Alberto (Beto) who was a very prominent cancer surgeon who never married. He
was a University Professor at the university of Medicine of UNNE and who lived in Corrientes.
David (Chiquito) Lifschitz with Pearl Nudelman, Daniel, Fania, Hugo Sverdloff and Rafael
Sverdloff
Then they had Alberto (Beto) who was a very prominent cancer surgeon who never married. He
was a University Professor at the FACULTy of Medicine of UNNE and who lived in Corrientes.
David (Chiquito) Lifschitz with Pearl Nudelman, Daniel, Fania, Hugo Sverdloff and Rafael
Sverdloff
Then they had Alberto (Beto) who was a very prominent cancer surgeon who never married. He
was a University Professor at the FACULTy of Medicine of UNNE and who lived in Corrientes.
The fourth son Leon was a chemical engineer, active member and leader of the Communist
Party, for whom he was a candidate for different elective positions in the elections in which he
was allowed to run. He suffered persecution and arrest for his political ideas. He was the one
who signed the Communist Party to his cousin who was my father Polo Blugerman. Leoncho as
he was known, lived his whole life in Corrientes where he married Arminda Paglieda and they
had three daughters Viviana, Daniela who lives in Denver and Mariana.
Leoncho's daughters
They eventually had Susana to marri Humberto Scharovsky who had two children, Carlos, a
recently deceased single physician oncologist and Patricia who lives in Corrientes.

Susana Lifschitz, Humberto Scharovsky, Mary (Hugo's wife), Rafael Sverdloff, Fania Lifschitz,
Gabriel Chausofky, and Anita Sverdloff.
Daniel had a general store warehouse in Corrientes similar to that of his brother Israel in Villa
Dominguez.


Isaac Lifschitz was born in 1891 (named after his grandfather Isaac Bilkis) married Natalia Deli
(1892) and they had three children. Fanny, Leon and Daniel.
Fanny was born in 1915 and named after her deceased grandmother in Bessarabia. He married
Pedro Vinograd and lived in Buenos Aires until his death in 2003, they had two children, Miguel
(Lito) Vinograd born in 1936 and Hugo Vinograd born in 1940.
The boys were Leon (1919) was a pharmacist, never married and, David (Dude) (1927) who
married Marta Romero in 1959 had their daughter Silvia.
With Sergio and Javier Vinograd and Javier's daughter.
With Javier Vinograd
Sara Lifschitz married Simon Braverman.
La eldest daughter Josephine (Sheibe) marries Abraham (Pototo) Blugerman scribe and book
printer.
Sheibe's daughters with her grandparents
They had three daughters, Maria Susana (Bibi) who married Samario Matuzevich, Priscila
(Keky) who married William Titiovsky and Anne Maria who married Luis Czyzewski whose
daughter Paola was killed in the AMIA attack.
Ana Maria Blugermanand her husband Luis.
Paola, victim of the AMIA bombing.
The son Leopoldo first married Ida Blugerman and they had two sons Alberto, physician
Neurosurgeon married to María Rosa Farizano and Mario married to María Casco Miranda.
When his wife died, Leopold married Ida's cousin Cecilia Blugerman.


The youngest daughter Sofia (Porota), married Luis Trofelli and they had a very successful real
estate company in Corrientes. They had two children, a boy Luis Trofelli who married Zulma
Escobar, a deceased young woman and a Susana woman who lives in Buenos Aires married to
Hugo Baumberger.
Trofelli's Braverman Porota, Susana Trofelli
Susana and her husband
Luis Trofelli on his wedding

Israel Lifschitz (1897) married Eva Regina (Lola) Palatnik and was the most prolific of the
brothers. It had a warehouse of Ramos Generales next to the Yarcho Pharmacy where the
Museum of Jewish Colonies is currently located in Dominguez.

Israel with the grandchildren.
Israel's 4 Eldest Children

Her first child was Samuel (Ingale) born in 1920 to be married to Ana Asernitzky and died
young in La Capilla in 1971. They had two sons, the male Simon married to Liliana Geranio
lives in Buenos Aires and is a music producer, Daughter Celia marries Felipe Leibovich and
lives in Israel.
The second Juan Adolfo 1923 died at birth.
The third, Marcos (1924) known as el Gordo, married to Elsa Lifschitz (they were not related),
successful merchant, jovial, Road Tourism runner who died in 1982 of a heart attack during his
nephew's wedding party.

Marcos Lifschitz
Marcos Lifschitz and Chiquito Marques.
Marcos and Moishe in their motorsport days
Marcos and Adelita at the party of 15. Back Israel.
Adelita, Sergio y Hugo.
One of the last pictures of the Fat Man.

Three children, Hugo entrepreneur in Paraná and La Paz (Cemetery, Hotels), Sergio also
business entrepreneur in Paraná (Corralón Paraná and Esco) and Adela married to Carlos Samek
who has a home for boys with different capacities in Paraná.
The fourth son was Leopold (Polo) (1927) married to Josefa Taran who had the Corralón
Paraná, along with Marcos, then was administrator of Hugo's Private Cemetery in Paraná. They
had two sons, Osvaldo Architect who lives in Rosario and Ricardo who lives in Paraná.
After so many men came the female daughter, Sofia (1929) known as the Bold who married
Adolfo Levit and settled in Concordia. There they had two children, Mabel married to Carlos
Kupervaser, radiologist technique and Mario Levit agricultural entrepreneur.
Black and Adolphus in their marriage

Polo, Negrita y Moishe.Mabel Levit
The sixth, James (1931) or better known as Jacobito who stayed living in Dominguez and was a
candidate for intendent of the people by the Broad Front. Married first to Rosa González Rebosio
and they had Clara who lives in Buenos Aires, Alcides (Pelusa) who lives in Villaguay where he
has a fishmonger, Silvia who lives in Concordia, Ana who lives in Israel and Carlos and then
marries Esther Martínez with whom he had three other children, Lola, Diego Armando and
Marcos.

Pelusa
In 1934 Elida Leonor was born and died of a child..
Finish the children’s production with Moses (Moishe) in 1938 and died in 2020. He married to
Norma Wainer and lived in Villaguay where he was a merchant and they had three sons,
Daniel, Medic Anesthesiologist, Guillermo and Diego who is coach of Professional Basketball.

Moishe
Moishe and Norma on the day of their marriage
Con Daniel Lifschiz
Diego y Guillermo

Gregorio Lifschitz married Berta Singerman and they had no children. He was the first one to
move to Corrientes. He invite my grandmother Maria, to visit him and that's when he met my
grandfather Pedro. Blugerman who passed back and forth with the tram to see her on the verdict.

Gregorio Lifschitz, Bertha y Gregorio.Berta Gregorio y Fany 1929
Ana Lifschitz and Berta Sigerman de Lifschitz

Ana Lifschitz (1903) married Abraham Barr, and had two daughters. Major Paulina (Chola)
(1924) who married Marcos Sucovsky with whom she had three children, Isaac, Susana and
Judith and the youngest daughter Matilde (1925) who married Manuel Rubinzhal and who lived
in Bariloche where we visited her in her shop on the main avenue. They had a daughter named
Norma married to Jorge Labens who emigrated to the USA.
Ana with her two daughters in August 1929

Ana was widowed in 1925 months before her second daughter was born. The husband died in
San Nicolás de los Arroyos where they lived.
Matilde Barr

Years later she remarried Daniel Roitman with whom she had another daughter Marta Roitman
who married Manuel Borodovsky.
Ana Lifschitz and her son-in-law Marcos Sucovsky who had a bakery in Dominguez. In the other
photo Marta Roitman with her daughter Ana Marisa Borodovsky
Susy Sucovsky with her daughter Gioia. Isaac Sucovsky

Maria Lifschitz, Solomon and Clara's youngest daughter, was born in Bessarabia and arrived
here with a few months in 1908,but then scored it has being born in Argentina in 1912. He
married Pedro Blugerman and settled in Corrientes where Pedro was a journalist, director of the
Newspaper El Liberal, bookmaker, impretere, and politician in the Autonomist party.
Maria and Pedro with their three children Pedro, OfeliaPolo, Chela y Negra

They had three children. Major Ruth Sofia (Chela)(1925) who married Angel Marquez, and had
Miguel Angel Saúl Márquez medical psychiatrist of outstanding trajectory, and Elvira Paula
(Biyi) who was Queen of the Carnival of Corrientes.
The second son who was my father, Leopoldo Marcos Blugerman (1927), a physician and
owner of a Sanatorium in Corrientes also leader of the Communist Party and married to Olga
Bouille who had three children, Silvia, Patricia and Guillermo Saúl.
The third Ofelia (Negra) (1928) married to Marcos Levy and living in Beersheva Israel and had
two children, Jaime Saul (Kito) and Raquel Elina (Kelly). According to the story it tells that
Grandma Mary wanted us to pay homage with our names to her father Solomon but neither her
daughters nor her daughters-in-law liked the name and that is why they transposed us with
putting the three boys as the middle name Saul in honor of Solomon.

10 years married from Chela and Chiquito

Polo, Guillermo y Pedro
Kito with his children and grandchildren
Ofelia in Israel Biyi Queen of the Carnival of Corrientes
Polo with Kelly and Cacho's children
Kely y Cacho Tieffemberg
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